标题：Snow Cover and Climate Change and Their Coupling Effects on Runoff in the Keriya River Basin during 2001–2020
作者：Yan Wei, Wang Yifan, Ma Xiaofei, Liu Minghua, Yan Junhui, Tan Yaogeng, Liu Sutao
摘要：As a significant component of the cryosphere, snow cover plays a crucial role in modulating atmospheric circulation and regional hydrological equilibrium. Therefore, studying the dynamics of snow cover and its response to climate change is of great significance for regional water resource management and disaster prevention. In this study, reanalysis climate datasets and a new MODIS snow cover extent product over China were used to analyze the characteristics of climate change and spatiotemporal variations in snow cover in the Keriya River Basin (KRB). Furthermore, the effects of climate factors on snow cover and their coupling effects on runoff were quantitatively evaluated by adopting partial least squares regression (PLSR) method and structural equation modeling (SEM), respectively. Our findings demonstrated the following: (1) Air temperature and precipitation of KRB showed a significant increase at rates of 0.24 °C/decade and 14.21 mm/decade, respectively, while the wind speed did not change significantly. (2) The snow cover frequency (SCF) in the KRB presented the distribution characteristics of “low in the north and high in the south”. The intra-annual variation of snow cover percentage (SCP) of KRB displayed a single peak (in winter), double peaks (in spring and autumn), and stability (SCP > 75%), whose boundary elevations were 4000 m and 6000 m, respectively. The annual, summer, and winter SCP in the KRB declined, while the spring and autumn SCP experienced a trend showing an insignificant increase during the hydrological years of 2001–2020. Additionally, both the annual and seasonal SCF (except autumn) will be further increased in more than 50% of the KRB, according to estimates. (3) Annual and winter SCF were controlled by precipitation, of which the former showed a mainly negative response, while the latter showed a mainly positive response, accounting for 43.1% and 76.16% of the KRB, respectively. Air temperature controlled SCF changes in 45% of regions in spring, summer, and autumn, mainly showing negative effects. Wind speed contributed to SCF changes in the range of 11.23% to 26.54% across annual and seasonal scales. (4) Climate factors and snow cover mainly affect annual runoff through direct influences, and the total effect was as follows: precipitation (0.609) > air temperature (−0.122) > SCP (0.09).
关键词：snow cover; climate change; runoff; partial least squares regression; Keriya River Basin